Standardizing Rigid Inclusions for Transportation Projects – Phase I

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General Information
Solicitation Number: 1579
Status: Cleared by FHWA
Date Posted: Apr 29, 2022
Last Updated: Nov 01, 2022
Solicitation Expires: Apr 29, 2023
Partners: ID, KS, LA, MDOT SHA, MN, PADOT, TX
Lead Organization: Kansas Department of Transportation
Financial Summary
Commitment Start Year: 2023
Commitment End Year: 2025
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Commitments Required: $240,000.00
Commitments Received: $600,000.00
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Dan Wadley
Dan.Wadley@ks.gov
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Jennifer Nicks
jennifer.nicks@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 493-3075
Study Champion(s): David Behzadpour
David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Phone: 785-291-3847
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Idaho Department of Transportation 2023 $90,000.00 Anthony Beauchamp Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2023 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2024 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2025 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2023 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2024 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2025 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Rich Lamb Nicole Westadt 651-366-4270 nicole.westadt@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Rich Lamb Nicole Westadt 651-366-4270 nicole.westadt@state.mn.us
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov

Background

Rigid inclusions are grouted or cemented columns used to improve loose or soft soils.  They have been increasingly used in the practice in the United States, mostly for embankment, retaining walls, and box culvert support in transportation applications.  Several types of equipment and methods are available in the practice to install rigid inclusions with different trade names.  Installation of rigid inclusions may cause full or partial displacement of their surrounding soils that disturb soils, neighboring rigid inclusions, and/or existing structures, depending on the type of equipment and method used, installation procedure, and type of soil.  Rigid inclusions are often installed under a load transfer platform to support embankment or structure loads.  The methodology and equipment-driven installation has been closely guarded and much is proprietary (commercial competitive advantage), which has left the DOTs dependent on and obligated to the contractor. No well-accepted design methods and construction specifications are available to assess and consider installation effects on their surrounding soils, neighboring rigid inclusions, and nearby existing structures, downdrag forces in rigid inclusions under embankment or structure loads, and stability of embankments with side slopes supported by rigid inclusions.  Research, including the state of the practice (Phase I) and full-scale field tests (Phase II), is needed to quantify rigid inclusion installation effects, develop design methods considering their effects on load transfer analysis, axial load capacity, and displacement calculations for vertical loads and evaluating the stability of rigid inclusion-supported embankments, and develop construction specifications for minimizing installation effects and improving long-term performance.

  

Objectives

The main objectives of the Phase I study are to assess the state of the practice of rigid inclusions used for embankment and structure support, analyze existing data and design methods available in the literature or agencies, identify knowledge gaps and missing data and procedures, and develop a plan for full-scale field tests to be carried out in the Phase II study.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review and Assessment of Current Practices

This task includes a comprehensive review of US and international practices and research on the use of rigid inclusions for vertical load support and embankment stability including rigid inclusion installation effects, load transfer (e.g., downdrag), design methods, construction specifications and identifies gaps in these aspects. A survey of state DOTs, designers, and contractors will be conducted to solicit direct input on current practices. Existing field test data will be collected.

 

Task 2: Evaluating Design Methodologies

Based on literature and survey results, review existing design methodologies to quantify the effects of various components (e.g., element geometry/arrangement, installation method, and soil conditions) on resistance, load transfer, and performance (e.g., settlement, bearing capacity, and stability). Evaluate design methods using available test results supplemented with numerical analyses and identify knowledge gaps and missing data to be gathered through a full-scale field test program in the Phase 2 study.

 

Task 3: Developing Full-scale Field Test Program

Based on Tasks 1 and 2, the research team will work with sponsoring agencies to develop a full-scale field test program to fill the knowledge gaps identified and collect additional test data to be used for validating and improving existing design methods or developing new design methods. A test site will be selected, existing geotechnical information for the test site will be collected, preliminary site characterization will be performed, and a plan for a full-scale test program will be developed.  

 

Deliverables:

 

At the conclusion of this Phase I project, a report will be produced:

i.                 To provide a state of the practice assessment of available installation equipment and techniques for rigid inclusions, installation effects on surrounding areas and soil properties, design methods and procedures, and construction specifications,

ii.               To identify knowledge gaps and missing data and procedures including but not limited  to design methods and construction specifications, and

iii.             To develop a plan for full-scale field tests to be carried out in the Phase II study.

Comments

 The required commitment for the Phase I study is $240,000. Participants are requested to contribute $30,000/year.

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Approval SPR Waiver State Led Approval SPR Waiver Memo#1579.pdf Memorandum Public

Standardizing Rigid Inclusions for Transportation Projects – Phase I

General Information
Solicitation Number: 1579
Status: Cleared by FHWA
Date Posted: Apr 29, 2022
Last Updated: Nov 01, 2022
Solicitation Expires: Apr 29, 2023
Partners: ID, KS, LA, MDOT SHA, MN, PADOT, TX
Lead Organization: Kansas Department of Transportation
Financial Summary
Commitment Start Year: 2023
Commitment End Year: 2025
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Commitments Required: $240,000.00
Commitments Received: $600,000.00
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Dan Wadley
Dan.Wadley@ks.gov
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Jennifer Nicks
jennifer.nicks@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 493-3075
Commitments by Organizations
Agency Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Idaho Department of Transportation 2023 $90,000.00 Anthony Beauchamp Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Dan Wadley David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2023 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2024 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development 2025 $30,000.00 Jesse Rauser Tyson Rupnow tyson.rupnow@la.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2023 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2024 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration 2025 $30,000.00 Madan Gaddam Sharon Hawkins 410-545-2920 shawkins2@mdot.maryland.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Rich Lamb Nicole Westadt 651-366-4270 nicole.westadt@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Rich Lamb Nicole Westadt 651-366-4270 nicole.westadt@state.mn.us
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Sara Mullaney Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2023 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2024 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov
Texas Department of Transportation 2025 $30,000.00 Sharad Dumre Ned Mattila 512-416-4727 ned.mattila@txdot.gov

Background

Rigid inclusions are grouted or cemented columns used to improve loose or soft soils.  They have been increasingly used in the practice in the United States, mostly for embankment, retaining walls, and box culvert support in transportation applications.  Several types of equipment and methods are available in the practice to install rigid inclusions with different trade names.  Installation of rigid inclusions may cause full or partial displacement of their surrounding soils that disturb soils, neighboring rigid inclusions, and/or existing structures, depending on the type of equipment and method used, installation procedure, and type of soil.  Rigid inclusions are often installed under a load transfer platform to support embankment or structure loads.  The methodology and equipment-driven installation has been closely guarded and much is proprietary (commercial competitive advantage), which has left the DOTs dependent on and obligated to the contractor. No well-accepted design methods and construction specifications are available to assess and consider installation effects on their surrounding soils, neighboring rigid inclusions, and nearby existing structures, downdrag forces in rigid inclusions under embankment or structure loads, and stability of embankments with side slopes supported by rigid inclusions.  Research, including the state of the practice (Phase I) and full-scale field tests (Phase II), is needed to quantify rigid inclusion installation effects, develop design methods considering their effects on load transfer analysis, axial load capacity, and displacement calculations for vertical loads and evaluating the stability of rigid inclusion-supported embankments, and develop construction specifications for minimizing installation effects and improving long-term performance.

  

Objectives

The main objectives of the Phase I study are to assess the state of the practice of rigid inclusions used for embankment and structure support, analyze existing data and design methods available in the literature or agencies, identify knowledge gaps and missing data and procedures, and develop a plan for full-scale field tests to be carried out in the Phase II study.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review and Assessment of Current Practices

This task includes a comprehensive review of US and international practices and research on the use of rigid inclusions for vertical load support and embankment stability including rigid inclusion installation effects, load transfer (e.g., downdrag), design methods, construction specifications and identifies gaps in these aspects. A survey of state DOTs, designers, and contractors will be conducted to solicit direct input on current practices. Existing field test data will be collected.

 

Task 2: Evaluating Design Methodologies

Based on literature and survey results, review existing design methodologies to quantify the effects of various components (e.g., element geometry/arrangement, installation method, and soil conditions) on resistance, load transfer, and performance (e.g., settlement, bearing capacity, and stability). Evaluate design methods using available test results supplemented with numerical analyses and identify knowledge gaps and missing data to be gathered through a full-scale field test program in the Phase 2 study.

 

Task 3: Developing Full-scale Field Test Program

Based on Tasks 1 and 2, the research team will work with sponsoring agencies to develop a full-scale field test program to fill the knowledge gaps identified and collect additional test data to be used for validating and improving existing design methods or developing new design methods. A test site will be selected, existing geotechnical information for the test site will be collected, preliminary site characterization will be performed, and a plan for a full-scale test program will be developed.  

 

Deliverables:

 

At the conclusion of this Phase I project, a report will be produced:

i.                 To provide a state of the practice assessment of available installation equipment and techniques for rigid inclusions, installation effects on surrounding areas and soil properties, design methods and procedures, and construction specifications,

ii.               To identify knowledge gaps and missing data and procedures including but not limited  to design methods and construction specifications, and

iii.             To develop a plan for full-scale field tests to be carried out in the Phase II study.

Comments

 The required commitment for the Phase I study is $240,000. Participants are requested to contribute $30,000/year.

Title Type Private
Approval SPR Waiver Memorandum N

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