Simplified SPT Performance-Based Assessment of Liquefaction and Effects

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(296)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Mar 06, 2014
Solicitation Number: 1354
Partners: AK, CT, ID, MT, OR, SC, UT
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 148753
Last Updated: Oct 22, 2020
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $179,500.00
Total Commitments Received: $179,500.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Justice Maswoswe
Justice.Maswoswe@dot.gov
Phone: 410-962-2460
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2014 $13,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Carolyn Morehouse (907)465-8140 carolyn.morehouse@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2015 $13,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Carolyn Morehouse (907)465-8140 carolyn.morehouse@alaska.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2014 $5,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2015 $5,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2014 $13,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2015 $13,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2014 $15,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2015 $15,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2016 $18,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2014 $13,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2015 $13,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
Utah Department of Transportation 2014 $30,000.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2015 $1,500.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2017 $4,000.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov

Study Description

Liquefaction of loose saturated sands results in significant damage to buildings, transportation systems and lifelines in most large earthquake events. Liquefaction and the resulting loss of shear strength can lead to lateral spreading and seismic slope displacements, which often impact bridge abutments and wharfs, damaging these critical transportation links at a time when they are most needed for rescue efforts and post-earthquake recovery.

While most updated seismic provisions now adopt a risk-targeted approach to design ground motions for superstructures, other critical aspects of geotechnical engineering, such as liquefaction and ground deformation evaluation, are still based on the older concept of deterministic hazard evaluation. Recent advances in performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) in geotechnical engineering (e.g., Kramer and Mayfield 2007; Rathje and Saygili 2008; Bradley et al. 2011; Franke and Kramer 2013) have introduced probabilistic uniform hazard-based procedures for evaluating seismic ground deformations within a performance-based framework from which the likelihood of exceeding various magnitudes of deformation within a given time frame can be computed. However, the ability to apply these performance-based procedures on everyday projects is generally beyond the capabilities of most practicing engineers.

This study proposes to create and evaluate simplified performance-based design procedures for the a priori prediction of liquefaction triggering, lateral spread displacement, seismic slope displacement, and post-liquefaction free-field settlement using the standard penetration test (SPT).

Objectives

1. Derive new simplified performance-based procedure for liquefaction triggering, lateral spread displacement, free-field post-liquefaction settlements, and Newmark seismic slope displacements.

2. Develop liquefaction parameter maps in GIS format associated with each of the hazards included in objective 1 at return periods of 475 years, 1033 years, and 2475 years for each of the states participating in the study.

3. Evaluate the new simplified performance-based liquefaction procedures against conventional (i.e., AASHTO) liquefaction analysis procedures.

4. Develop a simplified design procedure that will allow the designer to envelope the performance-based and conventional results to select which result will govern the design.

Scope of Work

Tasks for this study include, regarding the participating states:

1. Derivation and validation of a new simplified liquefaction triggering model (Year 1).

2. Derivation and validation of simplified lateral spread displacement models (Year 1).

3. Derivation and validation of simplified post-liquefaction settlement models (Year 2).

4. Derivation and validation of simplified Newmark seismic slope displacement models (Year 2).

5. Assessment of grid spacing considerations in various seismic environments for map development (Years 1 & 2).

6. Development of liquefaction parameter maps at targeted return periods in GIS file format (Years 1 & 2).

7. Comparison of simplified, conventional, and deterministic analysis approaches (Years 1 & 2).

8. Development of a simplified design procedure and an analysis spreadsheet that incorporates both performance-based and conventional methods (Years 1 & 2).

9. Preparation of the annual and final reports (Years 1 & 2).

10. Dissemination of results in appropriate engineering journals and conferences (Years 1 & 2).

11. Technical Advisory Committee meetings (Years 1 & 2), including a final workshop to train partner states on the new performance-based liquefaction hazard methods.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study will be Dr. Kevin Franke of Brigham Young University. Dr. Franke has extensive experience with developing performance-based models to evaluate liquefaction and its effects. He has been the Principal Investigator/Co-Principal Investigator on previous performance-based liquefaction studies for the US Geological Survey and the NSF. His qualifications for this study are based on nearly 9 years of experience with performance-based and probabilistic design methods.

Work is planned to begin in early 2014 and will run through 2016. At least one face-to-face meeting in Utah is anticipated with the project partners during the study, with travel costs covered by the project funds.

The minimum partner commitment expected is $26,000, consisting of $13,000 for FY 2014 and $13,000 for FY 2015.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Soils, Geology, and Foundations

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
March 2015 TAC Year 1 Update Report TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Report Final Draft_2.0_18May2015.pdf Annual Report Public
Final Report May 2016 (Report UT-16.16) https://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=6540219924529800 Final Report Public
Addendum Report Sept 2018 (Report UT-18.11) https://www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=6539412752487134 Final Report Public
Acceptance Memo Acceptance memo TPF5296.PDF Memorandum Public
Waiver Memo Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1354.pdf Memorandum Public
Closeout Memo TPF-5(296) Closeout Memo.signed.pdf Memorandum Public
SPLIQ Analysis Tool v1.41 SPLIQ version 1.41 (Jan2019-031919).xlsm Other Public
Closeout Funding Spreadsheet TPF-5(296) Closeout Financial Summary.pdf Other Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_FHWA_rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
June 2014 TAC Update Report - Tasks 1 & 2 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 1 Update_final_(6-27-14).pdf Report Public
September 2014 TAC Update Report - Tasks 5 & 6 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 2 Update_v3_(24Oct2014)_with apps.pdf Report Public
February 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 7 & 8 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 3 Update_final_(6Feb2015).pdf Report Public
June 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 3 & 4 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 1 Update_FINAL_(21Nov2015).pdf Report Public
December 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 5 & 6 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 2 Update_FINAL_(19Jan2016).pdf Report Public
March 2016 TAC Update Report - Tasks 7 & 8 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 3 Update_FINAL_(18May2016).pdf Report Public
SPLIQ Manual v1.41 Sept 2018 (Report UT-18.10) UT-18.10 SPLIQ Users Manual_Sept 2018.pdf Report Public
Final Project Summary March 2019 Project Summary TPF-5(296)_March 2019.pdf Study Summary Public

Simplified SPT Performance-Based Assessment of Liquefaction and Effects

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(296)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Mar 06, 2014
Solicitation Number: 1354
Partners: AK, CT, ID, MT, OR, SC, UT
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Closed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 148753
Last Updated: Oct 22, 2020
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $179,500.00
Total Commitments Received: $179,500.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Justice Maswoswe
Justice.Maswoswe@dot.gov
Phone: 410-962-2460
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2014 $13,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Carolyn Morehouse (907)465-8140 carolyn.morehouse@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2015 $13,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Carolyn Morehouse (907)465-8140 carolyn.morehouse@alaska.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2014 $5,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2015 $5,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Michael McDonnell Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2014 $13,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2015 $13,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 John Ingram Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2014 $15,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2015 $15,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Montana Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Jeff Jackson Susan Sillick 406-444-7693 ssillick@mt.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2016 $18,000.00 Susan Ortiz Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2014 $13,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2015 $13,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2017 $2,000.00 Nicholas Harman Terry Swygert 803-737-6691 SwygertTL@scdot.org
Utah Department of Transportation 2014 $30,000.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2015 $1,500.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov
Utah Department of Transportation 2017 $4,000.00 Darin Sjoblom David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov

Study Description

Study Description

Liquefaction of loose saturated sands results in significant damage to buildings, transportation systems and lifelines in most large earthquake events. Liquefaction and the resulting loss of shear strength can lead to lateral spreading and seismic slope displacements, which often impact bridge abutments and wharfs, damaging these critical transportation links at a time when they are most needed for rescue efforts and post-earthquake recovery.

While most updated seismic provisions now adopt a risk-targeted approach to design ground motions for superstructures, other critical aspects of geotechnical engineering, such as liquefaction and ground deformation evaluation, are still based on the older concept of deterministic hazard evaluation. Recent advances in performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) in geotechnical engineering (e.g., Kramer and Mayfield 2007; Rathje and Saygili 2008; Bradley et al. 2011; Franke and Kramer 2013) have introduced probabilistic uniform hazard-based procedures for evaluating seismic ground deformations within a performance-based framework from which the likelihood of exceeding various magnitudes of deformation within a given time frame can be computed. However, the ability to apply these performance-based procedures on everyday projects is generally beyond the capabilities of most practicing engineers.

This study proposes to create and evaluate simplified performance-based design procedures for the a priori prediction of liquefaction triggering, lateral spread displacement, seismic slope displacement, and post-liquefaction free-field settlement using the standard penetration test (SPT).

Objectives

1. Derive new simplified performance-based procedure for liquefaction triggering, lateral spread displacement, free-field post-liquefaction settlements, and Newmark seismic slope displacements.

2. Develop liquefaction parameter maps in GIS format associated with each of the hazards included in objective 1 at return periods of 475 years, 1033 years, and 2475 years for each of the states participating in the study.

3. Evaluate the new simplified performance-based liquefaction procedures against conventional (i.e., AASHTO) liquefaction analysis procedures.

4. Develop a simplified design procedure that will allow the designer to envelope the performance-based and conventional results to select which result will govern the design.

Scope of Work

Tasks for this study include, regarding the participating states:

1. Derivation and validation of a new simplified liquefaction triggering model (Year 1).

2. Derivation and validation of simplified lateral spread displacement models (Year 1).

3. Derivation and validation of simplified post-liquefaction settlement models (Year 2).

4. Derivation and validation of simplified Newmark seismic slope displacement models (Year 2).

5. Assessment of grid spacing considerations in various seismic environments for map development (Years 1 & 2).

6. Development of liquefaction parameter maps at targeted return periods in GIS file format (Years 1 & 2).

7. Comparison of simplified, conventional, and deterministic analysis approaches (Years 1 & 2).

8. Development of a simplified design procedure and an analysis spreadsheet that incorporates both performance-based and conventional methods (Years 1 & 2).

9. Preparation of the annual and final reports (Years 1 & 2).

10. Dissemination of results in appropriate engineering journals and conferences (Years 1 & 2).

11. Technical Advisory Committee meetings (Years 1 & 2), including a final workshop to train partner states on the new performance-based liquefaction hazard methods.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study will be Dr. Kevin Franke of Brigham Young University. Dr. Franke has extensive experience with developing performance-based models to evaluate liquefaction and its effects. He has been the Principal Investigator/Co-Principal Investigator on previous performance-based liquefaction studies for the US Geological Survey and the NSF. His qualifications for this study are based on nearly 9 years of experience with performance-based and probabilistic design methods.

Work is planned to begin in early 2014 and will run through 2016. At least one face-to-face meeting in Utah is anticipated with the project partners during the study, with travel costs covered by the project funds.

The minimum partner commitment expected is $26,000, consisting of $13,000 for FY 2014 and $13,000 for FY 2015.

Subjects: Bridges, Other Structures, and Hydraulics and Hydrology Soils, Geology, and Foundations

Title File/Link Type Private
March 2015 TAC Year 1 Update Report TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Report Final Draft_2.0_18May2015.pdf Annual Report Public
Final Report May 2016 (Report UT-16.16) Final Report Public
Addendum Report Sept 2018 (Report UT-18.11) Final Report Public
Acceptance Memo Acceptance memo TPF5296.PDF Memorandum Public
Waiver Memo Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1354.pdf Memorandum Public
Closeout Memo TPF-5(296) Closeout Memo.signed.pdf Memorandum Public
SPLIQ Analysis Tool v1.41 SPLIQ version 1.41 (Jan2019-031919).xlsm Other Public
Closeout Funding Spreadsheet TPF-5(296) Closeout Financial Summary.pdf Other Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st TPF quarterly progress rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_FHWA_rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter FHWA rpt_TPF-5(296).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
June 2014 TAC Update Report - Tasks 1 & 2 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 1 Update_final_(6-27-14).pdf Report Public
September 2014 TAC Update Report - Tasks 5 & 6 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 2 Update_v3_(24Oct2014)_with apps.pdf Report Public
February 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 7 & 8 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 1 Quarter 3 Update_final_(6Feb2015).pdf Report Public
June 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 3 & 4 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 1 Update_FINAL_(21Nov2015).pdf Report Public
December 2015 TAC Update Report - Tasks 5 & 6 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 2 Update_FINAL_(19Jan2016).pdf Report Public
March 2016 TAC Update Report - Tasks 7 & 8 TPF-5(296)_DOT Year 2 Quarter 3 Update_FINAL_(18May2016).pdf Report Public
SPLIQ Manual v1.41 Sept 2018 (Report UT-18.10) UT-18.10 SPLIQ Users Manual_Sept 2018.pdf Report Public
Final Project Summary March 2019 Project Summary TPF-5(296)_March 2019.pdf Study Summary Public

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