Validation of Tsunami Design Guidelines for Coastal Bridges

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(307)
Lead Organization: Oregon Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Apr 16, 2015
Solicitation Number: 1332
Partners: AK, CA, FHWA, HI, MDOT SHA, OR, WA
Contractor(s): Oregon State University,Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center
Status: Objectives fulfilled
Est. Completion Date: Jun 30, 2021
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Mar 17, 2021
Contract End Date: Dec 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $622,100.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Jon Lazarus
Jon.M.LAZARUS@odot.state.or.us
Phone: 503-986-2852
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Jerry Shen
jia-dzwan.shen@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 366-4619
Study Champion(s): Jon Lazarus
Jon.M.LAZARUS@odot.state.or.us
Phone: 503-986-2852
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2013 $0.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2014 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2015 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2016 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2019 $10,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
California Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2019 $10,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2015 $100,000.00 Sheila Duwadi Sheila Duwadi 202- 493-3106 sheila.duwadi@dot.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2014 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration $0.00
Oregon Department of Transportation 2013 $0.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2014 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2015 $120,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2018 $57,100.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2019 $10,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Washington State Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov
Washington State Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov
Washington State Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov

Study Description

The integrity and survivability of coastal bridges under earthquake and tsunami excitations is a major concern of western US states. A significant number of these bridges are vital to the emergency first response transportation of coastal cities immediately after a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, which will likely be followed by a local tsunami 15 to 60 minutes afterward. At least two numerical studies sponsored by California and Oregon of tsunami loads on a number of coastal bridges have been completed or nearly completed. Significant progress in the development of a tsunami design guideline has been made and the results appear promising. However, the reliability of the numerical results is unknown at this point due to a lack of experimental data needed for verification and validation. Thus, it is essential that an experiment be conducted to provide data to verify and validate the numerical results to assess the accuracy of the load prediction equations. When validated, the numerical model can then be used to further improve the numerical analysis and design development for a practice design guideline.

Objectives

The objective is to develop bridge design guidelines for the estimation of tsunami loads on highway bridges. It is proposed that the work include verification of the guidelines by model testing or comparison with observed results to calibrate the predictive capability of numerical models for analysis of tsunami loads on coastal bridges. Generalized bathymetry and topography parameters will be modeled analytically and replicated experimentally. For example, options may include a shallow submarine shelf case or deep submarine trench as bathymetry and coastal plain or river valley as topography. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine their appropriateness and compared against the numerical predictions.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review: Review technical literature, including consideration of the results of FEMA 646 to determine whether the results can be extended from buildings to bridges.

Task 2: Testing and Verification Plan Development and Data Collection

Task 3: Develop three-dimensional models of tsunami impact on bridge superstructures to better understand the interaction between the wave and structure forces and to study the effect of span length, superstructure type, superstructure depth, effects of buoyancy for varying superstructure type/depth, effectiveness of shear keys for girders on bearings, open vs. closed barrier rail, etc., on computations of the tsunami forces.

Task 4: Perform laboratory experiments of tsunami impact on bridge superstructures and

compare the test results with previous numerical estimates.

Task 5: Develop force distribution models on each girder in the bridge cross-section to evaluate reaction forces at connections between the deck and the girders or on flat soffit bridges typical of western US coastal bridges.

Task 6: Prepare final design recommendations and a final report documenting the testing and analytical studies.

Task 7: Prepare draft AASHTO specification language for consideration by SCOBS.

Comments

When the reliability of a numerical model is confirmed, the numerical models will then be used to provide comprehensive data for the development of tsunami loading guidelines.

A set of experimental data will be produced for verification and validation of the numerical model used in the analysis and guideline development of tsunami loads on western US coastal bridges. Based on the assessment of the reliability of the numerical results, a design guideline will be developed based on the calibrated results.

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Tsuanami Guidelines Final Report TsunamiFinal.pdf Final Report Public
Tsunami Loads on Straight and Skewed Bridges – Part 1: Experimental Investigation and Design Recommendations https://www.oregon.gov/odot/Programs/ResearchDocuments/Tsunami_Part1_Final.pdf Final Report Public
Tsunami Loads on Straight and Skewed Bridges – Part 2: Numerical Investigation and Design Recommendations https://www.oregon.gov/odot/Programs/ResearchDocuments/Tsunami_Part2_Final.pdf Final Report Public
Acceptance memo TPF-5_307_Acceptance.pdf Memorandum Public
Waiver Memo Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1332.pdf Memorandum Public
UNR Article Role of Trapped Air on Wave-Structure Interaction in Open Girder Bridges During Tsunami Impact 0. Manuscript_Trapped Air_Final.docx Other Public
UNR Article Deciphering the Tsunami Wave Impact and Associated Connection Forces in Open-Girder Coastal Bridges jmse-06-00148-v2 (1).pdf Other Public
2014 Q3 TPF 5(307) Q3 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 Q3 Quarterly report 2015-10-31 Q3_PL_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 Q4 Quarterly report 2015-12-31 Q4_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q1 Quarterly report 2016-03-31 Q1_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q2 Quarterly report 2016-06-30 Q2.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q3 Quarterly report 2016-09-30 Q3_FINAL_v3.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q4 Quarterly report 2016-12-31 Q4_JML.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q1 Quarterly report 2017-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q2 Quarterly report 2017-06-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q4 Quarterly report 2017-12-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 Q1 Quarterly report 2018-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 Q2 Quarterly report 2018-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 Q4 Final Quarterly report 2020-12-31_Final.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public

Validation of Tsunami Design Guidelines for Coastal Bridges

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(307)
Lead Organization: Oregon Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: Apr 16, 2015
Solicitation Number: 1332
Partners: AK, CA, FHWA, HI, MDOT SHA, OR, WA
Contractor(s): Oregon State University,Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center
Status: Objectives fulfilled
Est. Completion Date: Jun 30, 2021
Contract/Other Number:
Last Updated: Mar 17, 2021
Contract End Date: Dec 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount:
Total Commitments Received: $622,100.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): Jon Lazarus
Jon.M.LAZARUS@odot.state.or.us
Phone: 503-986-2852
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Jerry Shen
jia-dzwan.shen@dot.gov
Phone: 202- 366-4619
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2013 $0.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2014 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2015 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2016 $25,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2019 $10,000.00 Elmer Marx Anna Bosin (907)269-6208 anna.bosin@alaska.gov
California Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
California Department of Transportation 2019 $10,000.00 Tom Ostrom Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2015 $100,000.00 Sheila Duwadi Sheila Duwadi 202- 493-3106 sheila.duwadi@dot.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2014 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Hawaii Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Wayne Kawahara Kam Kin Sin kam.kin.sin@hawaii.gov
Oregon Department of Transportation 2013 $0.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2014 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2015 $120,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2018 $57,100.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Oregon Department of Transportation 2019 $10,000.00 Albert Nako Michael Bufalino 503-986-2845 Michael.Bufalino@odot.state.or.us
Washington State Department of Transportation 2015 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov
Washington State Department of Transportation 2016 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov
Washington State Department of Transportation 2017 $20,000.00 Bijan Khaleghi Lu Saechao 360.705.7260 saechal@wsdot.wa.gov

Study Description

Study Description

The integrity and survivability of coastal bridges under earthquake and tsunami excitations is a major concern of western US states. A significant number of these bridges are vital to the emergency first response transportation of coastal cities immediately after a Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, which will likely be followed by a local tsunami 15 to 60 minutes afterward. At least two numerical studies sponsored by California and Oregon of tsunami loads on a number of coastal bridges have been completed or nearly completed. Significant progress in the development of a tsunami design guideline has been made and the results appear promising. However, the reliability of the numerical results is unknown at this point due to a lack of experimental data needed for verification and validation. Thus, it is essential that an experiment be conducted to provide data to verify and validate the numerical results to assess the accuracy of the load prediction equations. When validated, the numerical model can then be used to further improve the numerical analysis and design development for a practice design guideline.

Objectives

The objective is to develop bridge design guidelines for the estimation of tsunami loads on highway bridges. It is proposed that the work include verification of the guidelines by model testing or comparison with observed results to calibrate the predictive capability of numerical models for analysis of tsunami loads on coastal bridges. Generalized bathymetry and topography parameters will be modeled analytically and replicated experimentally. For example, options may include a shallow submarine shelf case or deep submarine trench as bathymetry and coastal plain or river valley as topography. The resulting data will be analyzed to determine their appropriateness and compared against the numerical predictions.

Scope of Work

Task 1: Literature Review: Review technical literature, including consideration of the results of FEMA 646 to determine whether the results can be extended from buildings to bridges.

Task 2: Testing and Verification Plan Development and Data Collection

Task 3: Develop three-dimensional models of tsunami impact on bridge superstructures to better understand the interaction between the wave and structure forces and to study the effect of span length, superstructure type, superstructure depth, effects of buoyancy for varying superstructure type/depth, effectiveness of shear keys for girders on bearings, open vs. closed barrier rail, etc., on computations of the tsunami forces.

Task 4: Perform laboratory experiments of tsunami impact on bridge superstructures and

compare the test results with previous numerical estimates.

Task 5: Develop force distribution models on each girder in the bridge cross-section to evaluate reaction forces at connections between the deck and the girders or on flat soffit bridges typical of western US coastal bridges.

Task 6: Prepare final design recommendations and a final report documenting the testing and analytical studies.

Task 7: Prepare draft AASHTO specification language for consideration by SCOBS.

Comments

When the reliability of a numerical model is confirmed, the numerical models will then be used to provide comprehensive data for the development of tsunami loading guidelines.

A set of experimental data will be produced for verification and validation of the numerical model used in the analysis and guideline development of tsunami loads on western US coastal bridges. Based on the assessment of the reliability of the numerical results, a design guideline will be developed based on the calibrated results.

Title File/Link Type Private
Tsuanami Guidelines Final Report TsunamiFinal.pdf Final Report Public
Tsunami Loads on Straight and Skewed Bridges – Part 1: Experimental Investigation and Design Recommendations Final Report Public
Tsunami Loads on Straight and Skewed Bridges – Part 2: Numerical Investigation and Design Recommendations Final Report Public
Acceptance memo TPF-5_307_Acceptance.pdf Memorandum Public
Waiver Memo Approval of SP&R Waiver Solicitation#1332.pdf Memorandum Public
UNR Article Role of Trapped Air on Wave-Structure Interaction in Open Girder Bridges During Tsunami Impact 0. Manuscript_Trapped Air_Final.docx Other Public
UNR Article Deciphering the Tsunami Wave Impact and Associated Connection Forces in Open-Girder Coastal Bridges jmse-06-00148-v2 (1).pdf Other Public
2014 Q3 TPF 5(307) Q3 2014.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 Q3 Quarterly report 2015-10-31 Q3_PL_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 Q4 Quarterly report 2015-12-31 Q4_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q1 Quarterly report 2016-03-31 Q1_JML.pdf Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q2 Quarterly report 2016-06-30 Q2.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q3 Quarterly report 2016-09-30 Q3_FINAL_v3.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 Q4 Quarterly report 2016-12-31 Q4_JML.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q1 Quarterly report 2017-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q2 Quarterly report 2017-06-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 Q4 Quarterly report 2017-12-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 Q1 Quarterly report 2018-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 Q2 Quarterly report 2018-03-31_CORRECT.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 Q4 Final Quarterly report 2020-12-31_Final.doc Quarterly Progress Report Public

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