Shaking Table Testing to Evaluate Effectiveness of Vertical Drains for Liquefaction Mitigation

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General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(244)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: May 01, 2013
Solicitation Number: 1269
Partners: AK, CA, NY, SC, UT
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Contract signed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 138731
Last Updated: Aug 17, 2018
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $115,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $115,000.00
100% SP&R Approval: Approved
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Justice Maswoswe
Justice.Maswoswe@dot.gov
Phone: 410-962-2460
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2011 $20,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Clint Adler 907-451-5321 clint.adler@alaska.gov
California Department of Transportation 2011 $40,000.00 Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2011 $15,000.00 Matt Barendse Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2012 $0.00
Utah Department of Transportation 2010 $40,000.00 Jim Higbee David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov

Study Description

Although blast liquefaction studies have shown that vertical drains greatly increase the rate of drainage under field conditions, they have not prevented liquefaction. In addition, it is difficult to compare pore pressure development during blasting and an earthquake. At present, no direct field or laboratory data is available to confirm whether or not the drains have the ability to limit pore pressures and resulting settlement to acceptable levels. However, shaking table tests can be conducted with a large shear box (20 ft high, 9 ft wide, 16 ft long) containing drains at SUNY-Buffalo and compared with identical testing currently underway for another funded study. Tests will be performed at progressively higher acceleration levels and durations to allow comparison of performance (pore pressure & settlement) for earthquake conditions.

Objectives

Perform shaking table tests on sandy soils with vertical drains installed to confirm whether or not the drains have the ability to limit pore pressures and resulting settlement to acceptable levels during the earthquake event. Three objectives are outlined for this study:

1. Evaluate the ability of earthquake drains to reduce excess pore pressure and settlement for level ground conditions at progressively higher acceleration levels.

2. Define the influence of drain spacing on the effectiveness of the drains for mitigating liquefaction hazard.

3. Provide well-documented case histories which can be used to calibrate/validate numerical models for predicting the performance of vertical drains.

Scope of Work

The scope of work consists of eight specific tasks:

1. Perform a literature review to summarize the state of the art in the area of liquefaction mitigation through drainage.

2. Conduct level ground shaking table tests with drains at 4 ft spacing.

3. Conduct level ground shaking table tests with drains at 3 ft spacing.

4. Reduce the test data, analyze, and compare with previous test on untreated sand.

5. Evaluate predictive methods by comparing measured behavior with behavior computed using computer models and simplified models.

6. Prepare a final report on effectiveness of the drain technique.

7. Disseminate the research results.

8. Hold technical advisory committee meetings.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study will be Dr. Kyle Rollins, of Brigham Young University. Dr. Rollins has extensive experience with liquefaction mitigation studies, the use of vertical drains, and the simulation of earthquake conditions for research. This study promises to yield practical results.

Vertical drains offer the potential to deal with liquefaction problems at 30 to 50% of the cost and time required with conventional densification techniques. Drains could also be used in combination with other improvement techniques where it might be difficult or too expensive to completely prevent liquefaction through densification. Drains are particularly attractive for marginal liquefaction problems or for locations where it might be economically difficult to justify the conventional densification procedure.

Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Acceptance Memo SignedAcceptance Memo.pdf Memorandum Public
2011 4th Quarter 2011 4th quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 1st Quarter 2012 1st quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 2nd Quarter 2012 2nd quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 3rd quarter 2012 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 4th Quarter 2012 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 1st Quarter 2013 1st quarterly report - TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 2nd Quarter 2013 2nd quarterly report - TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 3rd Quarter 2013 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 3rd Quarter 2020 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Task 1 Literature Review TPF5244 Task 1 revised literature review_26Mar2014.pdf Study Summary Public
Documents Attached
Title File/Link Type Privacy Download
Shaking Table Testing to Evaluate Effectiveness of Vertical Drains for Liquefaction Mitigation 1269.pdf Solicitation Public

Shaking Table Testing to Evaluate Effectiveness of Vertical Drains for Liquefaction Mitigation

General Information
Study Number: TPF-5(244)
Lead Organization: Utah Department of Transportation
Contract Start Date: May 01, 2013
Solicitation Number: 1269
Partners: AK, CA, NY, SC, UT
Contractor(s): Brigham Young University
Status: Contract signed
Est. Completion Date: Sep 30, 2018
Contract/Other Number: 138731
Last Updated: Aug 17, 2018
Contract End Date: Sep 30, 2018
Financial Summary
Contract Amount: $115,000.00
Total Commitments Received: $115,000.00
100% SP&R Approval:
Contact Information
Lead Study Contact(s): David Stevens
davidstevens@utah.gov
Phone: 801-589-8340
FHWA Technical Liaison(s): Justice Maswoswe
Justice.Maswoswe@dot.gov
Phone: 410-962-2460
Commitments by Organizations
Organization Year Commitments Technical Contact Name Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2011 $20,000.00 Dave Hemstreet Clint Adler 907-451-5321 clint.adler@alaska.gov
California Department of Transportation 2011 $40,000.00 Sang Le 916-227-0701 sang.le@dot.ca.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2011 $15,000.00 Matt Barendse Gary Frederick 518-457-4645 gary.frederick@dot.ny.gov
South Carolina Department of Transportation 2012 $0.00
Utah Department of Transportation 2010 $40,000.00 Jim Higbee David Stevens 801-589-8340 davidstevens@utah.gov

Study Description

Study Description

Although blast liquefaction studies have shown that vertical drains greatly increase the rate of drainage under field conditions, they have not prevented liquefaction. In addition, it is difficult to compare pore pressure development during blasting and an earthquake. At present, no direct field or laboratory data is available to confirm whether or not the drains have the ability to limit pore pressures and resulting settlement to acceptable levels. However, shaking table tests can be conducted with a large shear box (20 ft high, 9 ft wide, 16 ft long) containing drains at SUNY-Buffalo and compared with identical testing currently underway for another funded study. Tests will be performed at progressively higher acceleration levels and durations to allow comparison of performance (pore pressure & settlement) for earthquake conditions.

Objectives

Perform shaking table tests on sandy soils with vertical drains installed to confirm whether or not the drains have the ability to limit pore pressures and resulting settlement to acceptable levels during the earthquake event. Three objectives are outlined for this study:

1. Evaluate the ability of earthquake drains to reduce excess pore pressure and settlement for level ground conditions at progressively higher acceleration levels.

2. Define the influence of drain spacing on the effectiveness of the drains for mitigating liquefaction hazard.

3. Provide well-documented case histories which can be used to calibrate/validate numerical models for predicting the performance of vertical drains.

Scope of Work

The scope of work consists of eight specific tasks:

1. Perform a literature review to summarize the state of the art in the area of liquefaction mitigation through drainage.

2. Conduct level ground shaking table tests with drains at 4 ft spacing.

3. Conduct level ground shaking table tests with drains at 3 ft spacing.

4. Reduce the test data, analyze, and compare with previous test on untreated sand.

5. Evaluate predictive methods by comparing measured behavior with behavior computed using computer models and simplified models.

6. Prepare a final report on effectiveness of the drain technique.

7. Disseminate the research results.

8. Hold technical advisory committee meetings.

Comments

The Principal Investigator for this study will be Dr. Kyle Rollins, of Brigham Young University. Dr. Rollins has extensive experience with liquefaction mitigation studies, the use of vertical drains, and the simulation of earthquake conditions for research. This study promises to yield practical results.

Vertical drains offer the potential to deal with liquefaction problems at 30 to 50% of the cost and time required with conventional densification techniques. Drains could also be used in combination with other improvement techniques where it might be difficult or too expensive to completely prevent liquefaction through densification. Drains are particularly attractive for marginal liquefaction problems or for locations where it might be economically difficult to justify the conventional densification procedure.

Title File/Link Type Private
Acceptance Memo SignedAcceptance Memo.pdf Memorandum Public
2011 4th Quarter 2011 4th quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 1st Quarter 2012 1st quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 2nd Quarter 2012 2nd quarterly report.docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 3rd quarter 2012 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2012 4th Quarter 2012 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 1st Quarter 2013 1st quarterly report - TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 2nd Quarter 2013 2nd quarterly report - TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 3rd Quarter 2013 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2013 4th Quarter 2013 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 1st Quarter 2014 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 2nd Quarter 2014 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 3rd Quarter 2014 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2014 4th Quarter 2014 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 1st Quarter 2015 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 2nd Quarter 2015 2nd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 3rd Quarter 2015 3rd quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2015 4th Quarter 2015 4th quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 1st Quarter 2016 1st quarterly report_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 2nd Quarter 2016 2nd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 3rd Quarter 2016 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2016 4th Quarter 2016 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 1st Quarter 2017 1st quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 2nd Quarter 2017_2nd_quarter_rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 3rd Quarter 2017 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2017 4th Quarter 2017 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 1st Quarter 2018 1st quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 2nd Quarter 2018 2nd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 3rd Quarter 2018 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2018 4th Quarter 2018 4th quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
2020 3rd Quarter 2020 3rd quarter rpt_TPF-5(244).docx Quarterly Progress Report Public
Task 1 Literature Review TPF5244 Task 1 revised literature review_26Mar2014.pdf Study Summary Public
Title File/Link Type Private
Shaking Table Testing to Evaluate Effectiveness of Vertical Drains for Liquefaction Mitigation 1269.pdf Solicitation Public

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