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Improving Specifications to Resist Frost Damage in Modern Concrete Mixtures

General Information

Study Number: TPF-5(297) View Commitment Details Status: Cleared by FHWA Contract/Other Number: TPF-TPF5(297)RS, OK Job Piece 30802(04)
Lead Agency: Oklahoma Transportation Last Updated: Aug 2, 2018
Contract Start Date: May 1, 2014 Est. Completion Date: Sep 1, 2019 Contract End Date: Sep 1, 2019
Solicitation Number: 1338
Partners: AK , CO , CT , FHWA , IADOT , ID , IL , IN , KS , MI , MN , ND , NE , NJ , NY , OK , PADOT , RI , WI

Contact Information:

Lead Agency Contact(s):
  Ron Curb
rcurb@odot.org
Phone: 405-522-3795
FHWA Technical Liaison(s):
  Richard Meininger
Richard.Meininger@dot.gov
Phone: 202-493-3191


Financial Summary:

Contract Amount: Total Commitments Received: $1,237,500.00 100% SP&R Approval: Approved


Commitments by Organization:

Agency Year Commitments Funding Contact Name Contact Number Email Address
Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities 2020 $0.00
Colorado Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Colorado Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Aziz Khan aziz.khan@state.co.us
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2013 $10,000.00 Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2014 $10,000.00 Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Connecticut Department of Transportation 2015 $10,000.00 Edgardo Block 860-594-2495 Edgardo.Block@ct.gov
Federal Highway Administration 2017 $35,000.00 Laura Lawndy laura.lawndy@dot.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2014 $18,000.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2015 $18,000.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2016 $16,500.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2017 $8,300.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2018 $14,100.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Idaho Department of Transportation 2019 $12,600.00 Ned Parrish 208-334-8296 ned.parrish@itd.idaho.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Illinois Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Megan Swanson 217-782-3547 Megan.Swanson@illinois.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Indiana Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Tommy Nantung 765-463-1521 ext 248 tnantung@indot.in.gov
Iowa Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Iowa Department of Transportation 2019 $0.00 Cheryl Cowie 515-239-1447 Cheryl.Cowie@iowadot.us
Kansas Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Kansas Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 David Behzadpour 785-291-3847 David.Behzadpour@ks.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2014 $35,000.00 Andre' Clover 517-636-6053 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Andre' Clover 517-636-6053 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Andre' Clover 517-636-6053 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Andre' Clover 517-636-6053 clovera@michigan.gov
Michigan Department of Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Andre' Clover 517-636-6053 clovera@michigan.gov
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2013 $17,500.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2016 $0.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Minnesota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Lisa Jansen 651-366-3779 lisa.jansen@state.mn.us
Nebraska Department of Roads 2014 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Roads 2015 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Roads 2016 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Roads 2017 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Roads 2018 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
Nebraska Department of Roads 2019 $17,500.00 Jodi Gibson 402-479-4337 jodi.gibson@nebraska.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New Jersey Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Giri Venkiteela 6099632239 Giri.Venkiteela@dot.NJ.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2017 $35,000.00 Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
New York State Department of Transportation 2018 $0.00 Wes Yang 518-457-4660 wes.yang@dot.ny.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
North Dakota Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Amy Beise 701-328-6921 abeise@nd.gov
Oklahoma Transportation 2013 $0.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2017 $0.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Oklahoma Transportation 2019 $17,500.00 Ron Curb (405)522-3795 rcurb@odot.org
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Pennsylvania Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Heather Sorce 717-214-9508 hsorce@pa.gov
Rhode Island Department of Transportation 2020 $0.00
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2014 $17,500.00 Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2015 $17,500.00 Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2016 $17,500.00 Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2017 $17,500.00 Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov
Wisconsin Department of Transportation 2018 $17,500.00 Ethan Severson 608-266-1457 ethanp.severson@dot.wi.gov


Study Description

Background:
Introduction and Background
Concrete can be damaged when it is 1) sufficiently wet (has a high degree of saturation) and 2) exposed temperature cycles that enable freezing and thawing. The damage that occurs due to freezing and thawing can lead to premature deterioration, costly repairs, and premature replacement of concrete infrastructure elements. Current specifications for frost durability are largely based on work completed in the 1950s, and while this work included many landmark discoveries (Kleiger 1952, 1954) it may not be completely representative of materials used in modern concrete mixtures. Further, the majority of current frost damage studies investigate freezing and thawing in water. While it is known that the presence of salts alters the freezing behavior, little research on frost damage is performed on air entrained concrete in salt water other than scaling studies. While the use of water greatly simplifies the system, it is not the most representative of what occurs on America’s bridges and highways. Results from recent studies suggest that there are several ways in which frost damage can be reduced through new tests and improve specifications that can lead to extended service life of concrete infrastructure. A brief summary of some of these findings and their relation to this proposal is provided below.
The conventional approach that is used to improve the frost durability of concrete is with the addition of an air entraining admixture (AEA) while the concrete is mixed. The AEA creates small well-dispersed air filled bubbles in the fresh concrete. Current theories hypothesize that bubbles act as pressure relief reservoirs for water to move during freezing. These air bubbles also decrease the degree of saturation in the concrete (Li et al. 2011). Because a large number of variables during the batching, mixing, and placement impact how AEAs perform in concrete, it can be challenging to provide a consistent air void system in hardened concrete in practice. Task 1 will review the most relevant findings from the literature and use that information to develop a testing matrix. This work will include information on how certain binders and admixtures may be incompatible in some circumstances. For example, research by Sutter at Michigan Tech has investigated the role of fly ash on air entraining dosage and research by Ley at Oklahoma State University has shown that current frost damage specifications may not always be adequate for mixtures with some modern water reducers. After the test matrix is developed the samples will be created and used throughout the testing for the remainder of the study to enable the various tasks to be compared. Specifically, the work will take advantage of novel techniques that have been developed to measure the quality of the air system. A novel method that has been developed to accurately measure void systems in fresh field concrete. Further, advanced experimental tools have been developed to study the three dimensional distribution of air in hardened concrete. For example, X-ray tomography based techniques can be used to image the 3D distribution of voids (Ley et al, in development). While these novel tests show great promise they will be compared with more conventional tests like two dimensional air void analysis and freeze-thaw testing to provide measures that relate these mixtures to measurements that are more commonly used today.
Additional research has investigated the role of absorption and saturation in the freezing process and how this behavior may change in the presence of deicing salts. It has been suggested that the freeze-thaw behavior of concrete can be related to the rate at which the concrete absorbs water and reaches a critical degree of saturation (Fagerlund 2004, Yang et al. 2006, Li et al. 2011). It has been proposed that once the critical degree of saturation is reached the sample begins to crack and the stiffness degrades rapidly. While this
Objectives:
The goal of the research is to produce improved specifications, and test methods; while, improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of frost damage. Specifically, this work will seek to develop new test procedures that may be faster and/or more reliable than the existing methods. The objectives of this project are:
• Determine the necessary properties of the air-void system to provide satisfactory frost durability in laboratory testing of laboratory and field concretes with different combinations of admixtures, cements, and mixing temperatures in salt environments
• Determine the accuracy of a simple field test method that measures air void system quality with field and laboratory concrete
• Determine the critical combinations of absorption and the critical degree of saturation on the frost durability in accelerated laboratory testing in the presence of deicer salts
• Establish new test methods and specifications for fresh and hardened concrete to determine frost durability and field performance
Understanding the research on freeze-thaw mechanisms is important for two main groups: 1) practicing professionals and 2) graduating undergraduate and graduate students. A portion of this project will be dedicated to development of a strong educational technology transfer program. Develop a short course that utilizes streaming video (and could be placed on a DVD for widespread dissemination). Practicing professionals frequently require information in a short time frame to respond to practice-based problems. The DVD/streaming video approach provides the information as it is needed and as such it is perfect for this application.
Scope of Work:
Task 1: Literature Review and Development of the Testing Matrix
Task 2: Sample Preparation
Task 3: Validation of the Super Air Meter
Task 4: Creation of an AASHTO Test Method and Specification for the SAM
Task 5: Use of X-Ray Tomography of Air Voids and Frost Damage
Task 6: ASTM C 666
Task 7: Absorption and Desorption
Task 8: Degree of Saturation and Damage Development
Task 9: Rate of Damage Analysis
Task 10: Technology Transfer
Task 11: Final Report
Comments:
Budget
The per state commitment requested is $17,500 per state per year for 3 years. The use of 100% SPR funds has been approved (waiver attached). The commitments received total $642,500. The state commitments total $537,500, FHWA has committed $52,500 and the Concrete Research Council has committed $52,500. The CRC money will be spent in conjunction with this project and will primarily be used to purchase equipment and increase the number of labs that take part in evaluating the SAM. Of the non-industry commitments, Purdue University's budget is $235,000 and Oklahoma State University's budget is $355,000. The project will be directed by Dr. Tyler Ley of Oklahoma State and Dr. Jason Weiss of Purdue University. Peter Taylor of Iowa State and Larry Sutter of Michigan Tech will also serve as technical advisers on the project.


Documents:

TitleTypePrivate
TPF-5(297) Final report Part 1 Final Report N
TPF-5(297) Final Report Part 2 Final Report N
Approval of SPR Waiver Memorandum N
TPF5 (297) Oklahoma Lead Acceptance Letter Other N
REQUEST FOR TECHNICAL CONTACT UPDATE Other N
Proposed additional tasks June 2018 through early 2019 using additional funds Other N
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 2 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 3 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2014 Quarter 4 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 2 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 3 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2015 Quarter 4 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 2 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 3 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
Suoolement to 2016 Q3> Toward Performance 1 Specifications for Concrete Durability: Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2016 Quarter 4 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 2 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 3 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2017 Quarter 4 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 2 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 3 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2018 Quarter 4 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
TPF5 (297) 2019 Quarter 1 Progress Report Quarterly Progress Report N
Modified Contract and Proposal Work Plan N
expanded scope of work Work Plan N
NOTICE OF PROPOSED STUDY EXTENSION Work Plan N


Solicitation Documents:

TitleTypePrivate
Approval of SP&R Waiver Memorandum N
 
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